The Model of concentric Spheres

The Theory of Spherical Vortices comes from an ancient model, the Model of concentric Spheres…

more than two millennia ago Eudoxus creates a model describing the movements in the solar system, model that Aristotle resumes and completes with the philosophical aspects.

Simplifying the model and adapting it to today’s knowledge it would be roughly this:

  • the Sun would become the new centre
  • the movement of Mercury would depend on the rotation of the first sphere, the fastest
  • the movement of Venus would depend on the rotation of the second sphere, larger and slower than the first
  • and so on…

up to the Sphere of fixed Stars, the largest sphere, this time without rotation, and coinciding with the Prime Mover.

Then we have the rotational movement of several concentric spheres and a Prime Mover, responsible, in some way, for the movement of all the spheres inside it. Prime Mover causing the movements of the Planets and the rotation of the Sun around its axis… Prime Mover that, paraphrasing Aristotle, “moves as an object of love”.

a model with a gravitational rotor, activated by a Prime Mover

The model changes with the passage of time…

and Descartes creates the Theory of Vortices, which says that the movement of the Planets is due to large Vortices of subtle matter that fills the interstellar space, Vortices carrying the Planets and keeping them on their trajectories. Planets more dense revolve in inner trajectories, Planets less dense in outer trajectories… a model of concentric spheres considered mainly on the plane housing the movement of the Planets.

a model with a gravitational rotor, activated by a Vortex of subtle matter

Leibniz, finally, takes the theory of Descartes and corrects its basic principle: for Descartes it was in the
constancy of the amount of movement, for Leibniz it was instead in the constancy of the amount of motive action or vis viva. This living force comes from an extended matter permeated by immaterial Centres of force that he calls Monad.

a model with a gravitational rotor, activated by a Center of force


at the same time Newton introduces a mysterious force, the gravitational force, a new concept that breaks with the model followed for centuries and that arouses admiration for its elegant mathematical formulation. So the Planets revolve around the Sun because bound by the gravitational force.

a model with a mathematical formulation, without a gravitational rotor, not activated by a motive cause but without resistance to the movement (because of the introduction of the Vacuum)

Hence, after two millennia, a new model, without a rotor and a motive action, changes with the passage of time…

The Theory of Spherical Vortices resumes the old model, inspired by a natural phenomenon, the Vortex, but also set aside for more than 3 centuries… then it’s developed in a solar system that doesn’t exist and subject to different physical principles.


the solar system becomes Solaris,
the Earth turns into Eutòpia,
the Sun into Solis,
philosophers and scientists of the past become Men with simple (sometimes wrong) Ideas,
the narrator a Stranger without beliefs that listens and evaluates the Ideas of the other Men.

And the impossible becomes possible…
so the Aether exists, the Space doesn’t bend, Perpetual Motion is in each Monad constituting the Universe, Einstein is a Man.


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The Model of concentric Spheres
July 2, 2019